Advantages of Using a Layered Model
- Allows a layer to be changed without impacting the rest of the model.
- Interoperability between network applications is improved by using a
- Design and development efforts can be made in a modular fashion.
- Network operations and troubleshooting can be simplified.
Five Conversion Steps of Data Encapsulation
Data >> Segments >> Packets >>
Frames >> Bits
- Upper layers convert and format the information into data and send it
to the Transport Layer.
- The Transport layer turns the data into segments and adds headers
then sends them to the Network layer.
- The Network layer receives the segments and converts them into packets
and adds header information (logical addressing) and sends them to the Data Link
- The Data Link layer receives the packets and converts them into frames
and adds header information (physical source and destination addresses) and
sends the frames to the Physical Layer.
- The Physical layer receives the frames and converts them into bits to
be put on the network medium.